Six Seconds’ approach to emotional intelligence and the process of social emotional learning is grounded in practitioner research.  Here are three resources to learn more about the research and science in our work:


Action ResearchSix Seconds is committed to supporting research in social emotional learning

We do this by:

1)  Providing consultation to EQ and SEL researchers, including doctoral and masters students, university faculty, and action researchers in schools throughout the world, who are interested in the Six Seconds model and assessment measures.

2)  Providing an opportunity and a space for researchers and practitioners to share their work, inspiring and connecting with others.

  • Webinars
  • Articles and Blog Posts
  • Peer to Peer conferences

3) Providing subsidies for researchers who wish to use Six Seconds’ approach and tools through our Grants program.

SEL Research Bibliography

What studies, dissertations and cases cite Six Seconds’ emotional intelligence tools and methods? In addition to the research archive in Six Seconds’ library (selected articles to the right), the following citations may be of use to scholars:

Aldan de Araujo, C., & Stillman, P. (2018). Como liderar no mundo VUCA – lições da Siemens Healthineers. Retrieved from

Bates, M., & Boren, D. M. (2019). Assessing Wellbeing in Schools. BYU Open Textbook Network.
Bernicker, D. (2018). Creating & sustaining a vital corporate culture @ Vega. Retrieved from

Cappella, E., & Bulotsky-Shearer, R. (Eds.). (2013). Advances in SEL research. AERA Newsletter Fall 2013, 7(1).

Crijns, Dennis. (2017). Emotional intelligence for hospitality at Restaurant Sunndays. Retrieved from

DeVoss, J., & Stillman, S. B. (2012). Developing emotionally intelligent school counselors for the prosocial classroom: A case study. In P. M. Brown, M. W. Corrigan, & A. Higgins-D’Alessandro (Eds.), The handbook of prosocial education. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Dijk, C. F.-V., & Freedman, J. M. (2007). Differentiating emotional intelligence in leadership. Journal of Leadership Studies, 1(2), 8–20.

Ercan, E. (2017). Hyundai sets the pace with creative thinking and being innovative training. Retrieved from

Fariselli, L., Freedman, J. M., & Ghini, M. (2019). The Amadori case: Supplying McDonald’s – organizational engagement, emotional intelligence, and performance. Retrieved from

Fariselli, L., Freedman, J. M., Ghini, M., & Valentini, F. (2013). White paper: Stress, EQ and performance in health care. Retrieved from

Fatum, B. (2013). Healthy classroom, emotional intelligence, and brain research. Retrieved from

Fatum, B. A. (2008). The relationship between emotional intelligence and academic achievement in elementary-school children (Ed.D.). University of San Francisco, United States — California. Retrieved from

Fatum, B. A., & Stillman, S. B. (2012). Technology, healthy classrooms, and emotional intelligence. Retrieved from

Freedman, J. M. (2011a). Emotional intelligence for change at Sheraton Studio City. Retrieved from

Freedman, J. M. (2011b). EQ in the Navy and Marine Corps – accelerating change with emotional intelligence. Retrieved from

Freedman, J. M. (2012). Women’s leadership edge: Global research on emotional intelligence, gender, and job level. Retrieved from

Freedman, J. M. (2018). State of the heart 2018: The latest research on emotional intelligence. Retrieved from

Freedman, J. M. (2018a). Welcome to growth! Findings from the latest EQ research on growing our capacity to grow. Retrieved from

Freedman, J. M. (2018b). Wellbeing threats and performance opportunities: The global EQ data. Retrieved from

Freedman, J. M., & Daniel, J. (2014). Emotional intelligence for people-first leadership at FedEx Express. Retrieved from

Freedman, J. M., & Fariselli, L. (2016). White paper: Emotional intelligence and success. Retrieved from

Freedman, J. M., & Stillman, P. (2016). The business case for emotional intelligence. Retrieved from

Freedman, J. M., Jensen, A. L., Stillman, S. B., & McCown, K. (2016). Benchmarks for an EQ school: Fully implementing social emotional learning. Retrieved from

Freedman, J. M., Procicchiani, T., Avdiu, L., & Chu, A. (2019). The journey of emotional intelligence and Six Seconds’ theory of change. Retrieved from

Freedman, J. M., Procicchiani, T., Freedman, P (2021). State of the Heart 2021: Trends in Emotional Intelligence. Retrieved from

Jensen, A. L., Freedman, J. M., & Stillman, S. B. (2016). Case for EQ in schools 2016. Retrieved from

Kearney, A. (2011). Exploring the effects of a social-emotional curriculum on the academic competencies and self-perception of students in a third-grade classroom. Retrieved from

Martinez, L. (2016). Students’ experiences in middle school. Retrieved from

Martinez, L., & Stillman, S. B. (Eds.). (2018). The EQ educator: Taking social emotional learning to schools. Freedom, CA: Six Seconds.

McCown, K., Jensen, A. L., Freedman, J. M., & Rideout, M. (2010). Self-Science: Getting started with social emotional learning (3rd ed.). San Mateo, CA: Six Seconds.

Melton, M. C. (2016). The impact instruction has on emotional intelligence in an Appalachian Kentucky high school (Ed.D.). Morehead State University, United States — Kentucky. Retrieved from

Miller, M. (2018). Growing courageous leaders for the future: The hummingbird leadership project with Wangari Maathai Foundation. Retrieved from

Mintle, L. S., Greer, C. F., & Russo, L. E. (2019). Longitudinal assessment of medical student emotional intelligence over preclinical training. The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association, 119(4), 236–242.

Porcaro Schulte, K., & Miller, M. (2019). What Will Reverse the Epidemic of Burnout Among Doctors? Shirley Ryan AbilityLab. Retrieved from

Prindle, C. M. (2014). A qualitative case study exploring self-efficacy and its influence on fourth grade mathematics students (Doctoral dissertation). United States — Arizona. Retrieved from

Pullen, J. S. (2013). Emotional intelligence outcomes regarding empathy and global videoconferencing lessons (Doctoral dissertation). United States — Pennsylvania. Retrieved from

Roff, K. (2018). Europe’s call to action: Three key EQ insights from new research on the state of the heart. Retrieved from

Royan, M. (2018). Sam’s journey from destruction of life to deciding for life. Retrieved from

Royan, M., Freedman, J. M., & Delano, T. (2018). Doubling down on EQ culture at ServRx. Retrieved from

Samanek, C., & Morrison, J. (2015). EQ team in big pharma. Retrieved from

Shaw, M., Stillman, S. B., Cicero, G., Cross, D., & Lessard, D. (2010). Multi-modal communication: A case study of organizational discourse and one-to-one mentoring at an online university. In U. Demiray, G. Kurubacak, & T. V. Yuzer (Eds.), Meta-communication for reflective online conversations. Hersey, PA: IGI Global.

Steinbock, E. (2019). Emotional intelligence competencies for success in early hospitality careers (Doctoral Dissertation). Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa.

Stillman, P. (2016). Vital Signs boosts results for India auto parts company. Retrieved from

Stillman, P. (2017). Introducing a new organisational culture. Retrieved from

Stillman, P., & Aldan de Araujo, C. (2018). How to lead people in a VUCA world: Lessons from Siemens Healthineers. Retrieved from

Stillman, P., & Brite, H. (2018). Multiplying team engagement. Retrieved from

Stillman, P., Freedman, J. M., & Procicchiani, T. (2018a). Connected leadership: Engaging for performance. Retrieved from

Stillman, P., Freedman, J. M., & Procicchiani, T. (2018b). Engaging for performance: Measuring change in a multi-dimensional leadership development program. Journal of Experiential Psychotherapy, 21(1), 34–45.

Stillman, P., Freedman, J. M., Jorgensen, M., & Stillman, S. B. (2017). Coaching with emotional intelligence: An experiential approach to creating insight, connection, and purpose. Journal of Experiential Psychotherapy, 20(4), 3–13.

Stillman, S.B. (2012). SEL research and practice: A global snapshot. AERA: Advances in SEL Research, 6(2), 13–15.

Stillman, S.B., & DeVoss, J. (2012). Developing EQ smart school counselors: A case study. Retrieved from

Stillman, Susan B. (2017). Improving school leaders’ effectiveness through EQ. Retrieved from

Stillman, Susan B. (2018). Growing an emotionally intelligent school community. Retrieved from

Stillman, Susan B. (2019). Inspiring a generation of hummingbirds. AERA Social Emotional Learning SIG 170 Newsletter, 12(1), 12.

Stillman, Susan B., & Stillman, P. (2018). Graduating EQ: Moving social emotional learning into higher education. Retrieved from

Stillman, S., & Martinez, L. (2019). Guiding youth to noble goals: A practitioner perspective. Journal of Character Education; Greenwich, 15(2), 91–102.

Stillman, Susan B., Martinez, L., Procicchiani, T., & Boffa, I. (2016). Middle school climate & learning – new research at AERA. Retrieved from

Stillman, Susan B., Stillman, P., Martinez, L., Freedman, J. M., Jensen, A. L., & Leet, C. (2018). Strengthening social emotional learning with student, teacher, and schoolwide assessments. Science Direct, 55(March-April 2018), 71–92. Retrieved from

Stillman, Susan Braude. (2015). School counselors embrace social emotional learning. Retrieved from

Velarde, F. (2018). Improving performance in Latin America with latest research. Retrieved from

Vyas, E. (2015). Relationship between healthcare leaders’ emotional intelligence and staff work engagement during transformational change: A correlational study (Doctoral dissertation). Capella University, United States — Minnesota. Retrieved from

Vyas, E., & Harris, M. (2017). Relationship between healthcare leaders’ emotional intelligence and staff work engagement during transformational change. International Journal of Strategic Management, 17(1).

Williams, L. (2017). Leveraging talents for performance: Momentum4 case study. Retrieved from

Wojick, T. (2013). Engagement, safety & quality in chemical manufacturing. Retrieved from

Recent articles in our Research archive…

Dr. Daniel Goleman Explains the History of Emotional Intelligence (2/29/2024) by Joshua Freedman - Daniel Goleman explains the history of emotional intelligence - and why EQ is important in business, education & life. ...
State of the Heart: We’re Facing a Global Human Energy Crisis (8/2/2023) by Michael Miller - New analysis from the world’s largest study of emotional intelligence on the social and emotional aftershocks of the COVID-19 pandemic. ...
How Much of the $1.8T Are You Losing? 4 Steps to Increase Engagement and Reduce Turnover with Emotional Intelligence (4/17/2023) by Joshua Freedman - Stop wasting money and learn how to leverage emotional intelligence for better results. Here's a 4-step plan to get started. ...
Emotional Intelligence Gaps Across the Generations (10/26/2021) by Joshua Freedman - Are the generations really that different? New data from the world's largest study of emotional intelligence says yes... in concerning ways ...
Want a Good Life? 3 Lessons from Harvard Grant Study (4/19/2021) by Michael Miller - Harvard study, more than 80 years old, identifies the common threads of a long, satisfying life. So what makes a good life? And how can this study’s findings help us make better decisions in our own lives? ...
Research: The Key to Leading Change Successfully Is Emphasizing What Will Stay the Same (4/14/2021) by Michael Miller - The secret of successful change efforts is to stress what... isn't changing? Research sheds light on the neuroscience of change. ...
Increase Employee Engagement with EQ: Komatsu Case Study (9/23/2020) by Six Seconds - Can we measure and increase Employee Engagement in an economic challenge? What's the benefit? Case study at Komatsu plant using "Vital Signs" and "Emotional Intelligence": engagement increased from 33 to 70%. At the same time, plant performance increased by 9.4%. ...
Learning & the Brain: Neuroscientist Immordino-Yang (9/15/2020) by Joshua Freedman - At a neurological level, how does the brain actually learn, and what's the role of emotion? What's the implication for education and training? ...
Integrated Emotions: Feelings Are Allies (8/17/2020) by Joshua Freedman - What if all our feelings had value? Many people see emotions as "good" or "bad" -- which leaves us in a constant state of internal struggle against our own feelings. Here's a framework to rethink feelings as valuable signals about what's important. ...
IQ vs. EQ: Why it matters what we measure (7/26/2020) by Joshua Freedman - The progress and problems that define the Digital Era are the logical conclusion of 100 years dedicated to cognitive intelligence. What would emerge from 100 years dedicated to emotional intelligence? ...

EQ solutions for social emotional learning